(Trade between Macau and Japan)
In this section you can check only, for now, work on the history of trade between Macau and Nagasaki.Download Pdf
Establishment of Nagasaki and Macau
Como é sabido a presença portuguesa na Ásia é marcada pelo controlo de rotas maritímas, muito rentáveis, mas que já eram conhecidas pela população local. Assim quando chegaram ao Mar da China, os navegadores portugueses aperceberam-se do grande comércio que existia ali, entre a China e os seus estados vizinhos. O caso do comércio com o Japão tornou-se especialmente interessante para os portugueses, pois a dinastia Ming havia cortado todo o comércio (legal) com os japoneses devido ao constante ataque dos piratas japoneses, chamados de wako. Então como se tinha tornado hábito, começou a procura por uma base fixa quer no Japão quer na China.
Nesta sua busca os portugueses vão tentar, primeiro fixar-se em Liampó, no Fuquiem, na costa chinesa. É pouco tempo depois disto, um ano depois,1 os primeiros portugueses desembarcam na ilha de Tanegashima. Quem foram os primeiros a chegar não há certeza2, mas o certo é que este acontecimento iria afectar tanto os japoneses como os portugueses no extremo oriente.
Os portugueses aperceberam-se que se queriam tirar muito proveito do comércio China-Japão tinham de ter bases fixas. Na China isso seria um problema, devido especialmente ao sentimento xenófobo dos nativos. Assim os portugueses tiveram de sair de Liampó, em direcção ao Sul, e após várias tentativas de se fixarem noutros portos, os portugueses invernaram numa ilha perto da foz do Rio das Pérolas. Nessa ilha com a permissão das autoridades cantonesas, os portugueses poderam, finalmente, estabelecer-se fundando a cidade porto de Macau3.
No Japão as relações entre portugueses e japoneses eram mais afáveis, chegando os Daimyo4 a disputarem entre si onde os nanbanjin, os “bárbaros do sul ” como eram chamados os portugueses, deviam ter o seu porto. Os portugueses nos primeiros anos, andaram de porto em porto, como o de Hirado, Satsuma e Bungo. O porto de Hirado era de especial interesse para os portugueses pois ficava na costa ocidental de Kyushu, diminuindo o tempo da viagem. Mas antes de se fixarem em Nagasáqui, os portugueses tiveram a sua base em Bungo, isto porque o seu Daimyo, Otomo, foi um dos primeiros Daimyo cristãos. Essa situação foi importante porque nesta altura já se fazia sentir a importância dos jesuítas e a sua missionização no Japão5. Por fim, em 1571, após o fundear de embarcações portuguesas em Kuchinotsu6, foi fundada Nagasáqui e entregue o seu controlo aos jesuítas7.
Assim os comerciantes portugueses passaram a ter duas bases fixas para o comércio entre o Japão e a China. Comércio esse que foi consedido pelas autoridades exclusivamente aos portugueses, devido à situação mencionada acima.
Nau Manner and goods
In this topic I will address how and what kind of trade was done between Macao and Nagasaki. First as it was done.
The arrival of the Portuguese in Japan was marked by the type of vessel used by them to land their goods in ports. This type of vessel was marked in history and Japanese language as Kurofune, ie the Black Boat, possibly due to the dark tone of the timber ship. This Kurofune often represented in Japanese screens (image 1) was the Portuguese designated as A Nau Trato8. It was through the tract Nau that the Portuguese crown did most of the trade between China and Japan, and withdrawing its biggest advantage. Although tract Nau had great importance in China-Japan trade, this was also done by private into smaller boats, most often Chinese called somas9 of the Portuguese. This trade was often conducted in absentia of the authorities, remaining practice of wako pirates. The Tract Nau made his route every year, waiting for the monsoon to leave Goa towards Malacca, rising to as Macau and finally going to Nagasaki. Sometimes Nau had to spend the winter in Nagasaki, not fulfilling the desire of the Crown not to. In image 2 we can see the route Tract Nau from Goa to Nagasaki.
The Tract Nau played a role of great importance to Macao and Nagasaki. Not only because of trade and materials traded, we will see then, but because the Captain-Mor of Tract Nau was for many years the most representative of the Crown in Macau and Nagasaki, performing Acting Governor of power in Macao which caused much friction with the Senate Macau10 Chamber. In Nagasaki, although this city is under the control of the Jesuits, when the tract Nau arrived and the Captain-Mor was called the court of the Shogun, this was received like a Daimyo11. In addition to the great reverence that the office had, he also gave many monetary gains. So it is no wonder that although the beginning was a gargo granted due to merit, he Have Feelings Too passed to a position purchased by bidding maior12.
Large Macao-Nagasaki trade gains were due mainly to two products, the Japanese silver and silk chinesa13. Against the Japanese silver, it was greatly appreciated by the Chinese, it was not a superiror quality, but because at one point the Chinese only accept payments in silver, and this had become little demand he had. Already the Chinese silk was also highly appreciated by the Japanese. These were silk producers, but preferred the coming of China, whether raw or woven, it was of higher quality. Although they had the major impact of these two products, there were more outstanding products, such as bronze, swords, spears and others. Of note are the mother-of-pearl products produced in Japan, known as Nanban (image 3) products.
This trade would keep stable until about 1639. It is this year, as mentioned above, that Shogun launches the edict of expulsion of all Portuguese. Previously had released an edict of expulsion of missionaries, but as Portuguese merchants continued to bring them infiltratos, Shogun afraid that Catholicism became a cause of disorder and disunity decided elimanar completely the threat. Attempts future to reopen the trade, made by the Crown, were not successful, leaving only the Dutch and foreign intermidiários in Japan, but with strong restrictions. Yet trade between Macau and Japan continued, not only in large-scale and “back door”.
Imagem 2 – Rota da Nau do Trato de Goa a Nagasáqui (O Grande Navio de A Macau)
Imagem 3 – Contador Nanban (MNAA)
The object of study chosen, the trade between Macao and Japan, including Japan Nagasaki during the Portuguese presence in Japanese land is well documented and studied. It is interesting to note that even in general works such as Encyclopedia of Bethencourt and Chaudhuri, History of Portuguese Expansion, this issue is well addressed. Also other more specific studies, such as the work mentioned John Paul Oliveira and Portugal Costa and Japan – Century Nanban, present interesting way the importance of this trade for the Portuguese presence in Japan Another work used and of great importance for the study. this subject is the Great Amacau ship by Charles R. Boxer, in which he presents not only disertação about the problem, as well as several documents in the original language, about who was going this route, the goods traded, among others. For a more comprehensive study of this subject, I think this is an essential book, and the consultation documents of the time.
In short, as I mentioned, this is a well-studied subject, which probably does not need to study, but very interesting and essential to understanding the Portuguese prsença in the Far East.